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Glossary

 

Abdomen

The belly.

AB(E) Powder

Monammonium Phosphate.

Abseiling

Descending a rope.

Accron Marauder

Brand of diffuser branch.

Acute Poisoning

Resulting from short exposure to a high concentration of a poison.

Aerolox

Siebe Gorman two hour, liquid oxygen, closed circuit SCBA.

AFFF

Aqueous Film Forming Foam.

Afterdamp

Name given to the gases present after an explosion underground. Mainly Nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide and water vapour, with little oxygen.

Aldehydes

Irritating organic compounds usually produced in mines by diesel engines. TLV 5 ppm.

Alp

Controlled rate descender.

Alphin Stretcher

Folding flat stretcher with full harness.

Alpine Butterfly

Knot used to create a loop for attachment in a rope allowing tension in three directions.

Altrack

Small 6:1 pulley system.

Analgesic

Pain killer.

Anemometer

Device for measuring air velocity.

Ansull Twin Agent System

Fire fighting unit comprising twinned hoses leading from two large containers (DCP and AFFF) pressurised by nitrogen cylinders.

Artery

Blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.

Asphyxia

Lack of oxygen in the blood.

Autoignition Temperature

Temperature at which a substance will ignite without an ignition source.

BA

Breathing Apparatus.

Back-up

Personnel on standby in case a team or party gets into difficulty.

Bar

Measure of pressure approximately equal to normal atmospheric pressure.

1 atmosphere = 1.013 Bar

= 14.7 psi

= 101.3 kPa

BCF

Bromochlorodifluoromethane, halon-type vaporising liquid fire extinguishing agent.

B(E) powder

Sodium Bicarbonate.

Belay

To secure something. In abseiling, a man on belay holds the rope to act as an emergency brake.

BG174

Dräger brand, four hour, compressed oxygen, negative pressure, closed circuit SCBA.

BG4

Replacement for the BG174. Is slightly positive pressure, has cooling ability and electronic pressure gauge.

BIC

British Instant Coupling. Usual coupling system for fire hoses.

Biomarine

US company that produces various Biopack SCBA.

Biopack 240

A two hour, compressed oxygen, positive pressure, closed circuit SCBA.

Bipod

Two legged frame.

Blackdamp

Nitrogen plus up to 20% Carbon Dioxide.

BLEVE

Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion.

Brachial Pulse

Pulse felt above the elbow.

Branch

Device used on the end of a line of fire hose to control the water flow.

Brattice

Air tight wall comprising a frame covered in an impervious material.

Briefing

Explanation of the situation plus the response plan.

Capillary

Small blood vessel that takes blood to the individual cells.

Captain

Leader of a team with ultimate control of the team's actions.

Carbonaceous

Containing carbon.

Cardiac

Relating to the heart.

Carotid Pulse

Pulse felt in the neck.

Casualty

Injured or ill person.

Catalyst

A chemical which affects the way that other chemicals behave without being consumed.

Cephalic

Relating to the head.

Cerebral

Relating to the brain.

Cerebrum

Major part of the brain.

Cervical

Relating to the neck.

Cervical Collar

Neck brace.

Chokedamp

Nitrogen plus over 20% Carbon Dioxide.

Chronic Poisoning

Resulting from long or repeated exposure to low concentrations of poisons.

Chubb FB5X

An inductor type foam branch with controls for foam/water and water on/off.

Class Label

Diamond shaped symbol warning of the hazard presented by a chemical.

Clavicle

Collar bone.

Closed Circuit SCBA

SCBA that re-use the exhaled oxygen.

Collecting Breech

A device used for bringing two lines of fire hose into one.

Combination Branch

A branch with two outlets, one for either a jet or spray and the other for a protective curtain.

Concentration

The amount of a chemical relative to its atmosphere.

Conduction

The transmission of a form of energy through a substance.

Convection

Relating to the movement of air.

Corrosive

Able to eat into certain materials.

CPR

Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (EAR + ECC).

Crab

Karabiner.

Cranial

Relating to the skull.

Cranium

Skull.

Crepitus

Grinding of broken bones.

Crush Injury Syndrome

The life threatening condition caused by prolonged restriction of blood circulation in some part of the body.

Crux 2000

Five legged rescue device especially suited to use over edges.

Crux Micro

Pair of jumars each with a pulley built in. Creates 3:1 mechanical advantage for hauling in a rope.

DCP

Dry Chemical Powder.

Debriefing

Discussion of the events of an emergency after the event.

Density

Mass relative to volume.

Diffuser Branch

A type of branch that allows the water flow to be controlled between a jet and a spray.

Diffusion

Spreading out.

Director

Overall controller of an emergency response.

Dividing Breech Piece

Device used to split one line of fire hose into two.

Donning

Putting on SCBA.

Dose

Amount of a chemical that has entered the body.

Double Fisherman's Friend

Knot used to join two lengths of rope.

Dräger

German manufacturer.

Drägersorb

Pelletised soda lime. Used to absorb Carbon Dioxide.

Dynamic Kernmantle Rope

Highly elastic rope used in rock climbing.

EAR

Expired Air Resuscitation (mouth to mouth).

ECC

External Cardiac Compression (heart massage).

ECO

Entry Control Officer.

EIP

Emergency Information Panel.

Electrocution

Electric shock - usually fatal between 100mA and 200mA.

Emergency Information Panel

Signs showing class label, hazchem code, etc that must be visible from areas and vehicles containing bulk quantities of a hazardous chemical.

Encapsulating

Fully enclosing.

Entonox

50% Nitrous Oxide + 50% Oxygen. Gas given for therapy and pain relief.

Entrapped Procedure

Procedure for greatly extending the duration of SCBA.

Entry Point

Point where SCBA are donned in surface rescues.

Entry Control Officer

Team member, usually captain, who keeps track of team members using open circuit SCBA.

Escape Route

Predetermined alternative route to be used if entry route becomes blocked.

Ethylmercaptan

Stench Gas.

Exhalation

Breathing out.

Explosive Range

Concentrations of a gas in air containing a normal oxygen level that would explode if ignited.

Exposure to Chemicals

Having chemicals enter the body.

Exposures

Flammable substances near a fire.

Exudation

Seeping out.

FAB

Fresh Air Base.

Fall Factor

Length of possible fall divided by length of rope (max = 2).

Femur

Thigh bone.

Femoral Pulse

Pulse felt inside the leg near the crutch.

Fibula

The thinner of the two bones of the lower leg.

Figure of 8 Bandage

Used to hold the feet together with the toes held back.

Figure of 8 Descender

Simple abseiling device.

Figure of 8 Knot

Knot used for most purposes with nylon ropes because it causes the least amount of weakness to the rope.

Fire

Chemical reaction between fuel and oxygen involving heat. Rapid oxidation.

Firedamp

Methane.

Fire Point

Temperature at which a substance will continue to burn.

First Breath SCBA

SCBA that can be set to negative pressure for startup and automatically switch to positive pressure when the first breath is taken.

Flammability

Ease with which a substance will burn.

Flash Point

Temperature at which a substance will give off sufficient flammable vapours to be ignited.

FP

Flash Point.

Fresh Air Base

Headquarters for underground rescue involving irrespirable atmosphere. Point at which SCBA are donned.

Full Duration

Theoretical time for which SCBA will provide air or oxygen.

Gas Detection Tube

Tube containing a chemical that will react and change colour when contacted by a certain gas. The amount of the chemical that changes colour when a measured amount of air is drawn through indicates the concentration of the chemical present in the air.

GFG Pump

Device used for collecting gas samples.

Guedal Airway

Device used for maintaining an open airway in a casualty.

Haemo

Relating to the blood.

Haemorrhage

Leakage from a blood vessel.

Haemothorax

Blood in the cavity between the lung and the rib-cage - slowly leads to a collapsed lung.

Hare Traction Splint

Device used for placing tension on a leg with a mid-shaft fracture of either the femur or tibia and fibula.

Hazardous Chemical

Any substance in such a form or quantity which if released from its container would pose an unreasonable risk to health, safety or the environment.

Hazardous Chemical Incident

The release or potential release of a hazardous chemical.

Hazchem Code (Scale)

Code displayed on EIP to show initial response considerations for a HCI involving that chemical.

HCI

Hazardous Chemical Incident.

Headquarters

Control centre for emergency response.

Heat Exhaustion

Condition of heat gain in the body exceeding heat loss.

Heat Stroke

Shut down of the body's heat regulation system.

High Pressure Leak Test

Performed on SCBA to examine for leaks in high pressure components.

History

The events leading up to the present situation.

Hopcalite

Catalyst that causes Carbon Monoxide to bond with Oxygen to form Carbon Dioxide. Used in filter type self rescuers.

Humerus

Bone of the upper arm.

Hydrant

Water supply point for fire fighting.

Hyperventilation

Overbreathing. Causes Carbon Dioxide to be eliminated from the bloodstream which affects the brain’s ability to control breathing.

Ignition Source

Flame or spark.

Impervious

Will not allow a substance to pass or soak through.

In-bye

Coal mining term for on the intake side of, ie upwind.

Incomplete Combustion

Burning with a shortage of oxygen.

Inductor

Device used to add low expansion foam concentrate to water flow.

Inergen

Inert gas extinguishing agent for fixed fire fighting systems.

Inert

Non-reacting.

Ingestion

Swallowing.

Inhalation

Breathing in.

Injection

Entering the bloodstream through a break in the skin.

Intrinsically Safe

Will not spark if damaged.

Irrespirable Atmosphere

Air that if breathed could be harmful to the health.

Jordan Lifting Frame

Stretcher that can be assembled around a casualty without the casualty being moved. Designed for use with spinal injuries.

Jumar

Device used for climbing a rope.

Kamlock Coupling

Hose coupling with two levers forming the locking mechanism.

KED

Spinal immobiliser suited to use in vehicle rescue.

Kernmantle Rope

Rope constructed of a separate core and outer sheath.

Larkin Frame

Tiltable alloy frame that can be easily assembled and gives height at an edge.

Laymore Stretcher

Solid flat stretcher with full harness.

LC-50

Lethal Concentration, 50% Kill. Measure of toxicity.

LD-50

Lethal Dose, 50% Kill. Measure of toxicity.

Leg Pocket

Bag for holding abseiling rope that can be secured to the leg.

Length of Hose

One 30m fire hose.

Line of Hose

More than one length of hose joined together.

Local Effect

Reaction to a chemical at the point of contact.

Low Pressure Leak Test

Test performed during start-up with open circuit SCBA, mainly to check the facemask seal.

Lox120

Dräger liquid oxygen closed circuit SCBA.

Lumbar

Relating to the lower back.

mA

Milliamp. Measure of electric current.

Make-Up

Pack away.

Mariner's Knot

Knot that grips a rope and allows controlled slippage.

MARS Unit

Automatic resuscitator.

MAST Suit

Medical Anti Shock Trousers. Inflatable suit that pushes blood out of the legs to minimise shock.

mBar

Millibar.

Medically Pure

99.9% pure.

Millibar

One thousandth of a Bar.

mm WS

Millimetres Water Scale. 10mm Ws = 1 mBar.

Monammonium Phosphate

Powder used in dry chemical fire extinguishers.

Monitor

Free standing branch.

Monkey's Fist

Large knot tied in the inactive end of a rope to prevent a descender passing.

Monotox

Electronic cyanide monitor.

MSDS

Material Safety Data Sheet.

NAF

Non-halon type vaporising liquid extinguishing agent.

Neil Robinson Stretcher

Slatted roll up stretcher designed for vertical lifting.

Negative Pressure SCBA

Demand valve operates at below atmospheric pressure.

Nominal Duration

Working duration.

Open Circuit SCBA

Exhaled breath is vented to the atmosphere.

Out-bye

Coal mining term for on the exhaust side of, ie downwind.

Oxidation

Chemical reaction where a substance combines with oxygen.

Oxygen Therapy

Giving a casualty pure oxygen to breathe to promote recovery.

PA80, PA90

Dräger two stage open circuit SCBA.

Party

Part of a team.

PEL

Permissible Exposure Limit. Measure of toxicity.

Pedal Pulse

Pulse felt on the foot.

Penthrane

Methoxyflurane. An inhaled analgesic.

Permeable

Will allow a substance to pass through.

Pneumothorax

Air in the cavity between the lung and the rib-cage. Rapidly leads to a collapsed lung.

Positive Pressure SCBA

Demand valve operates at above atmospheric pressure.

PPM

Parts Per Million. Measure of concentration. 1000 ppm = 0.1%.

Pre-flush

Device that purges closed circuit SCBA during start-up.

Premier 80

Dräger single stage open circuit SCBA.

Pressure Point

Place where pressure can be applied to an artery to restrict blood flow.

Primary Survey

DRABC

Protective Curtain

Wide spray produced by diffuser branches. Holds back flames.

Proto

First ever closed circuit SCBA. Patented by Siebe Gorman of England 1879.

Prussic Loop

Knot used with a thin cord to climb a rope.

Pulmonary

Relating to the lungs.

Pulse

Beating of the heart felt by applying pressure to an artery.

Purge

Remove normal air.

PVC Evac Body Splint

Roll up stretcher suitable for vertical & horizontal lifting and spinal injuries.

Radial Pulse

Pulse felt in the wrist.

Radiation

Diffusion of a form of energy.

Radius

Thumb side bone of the forearm.

Remote Effect

Reaction to a chemical at a point other than the point of contact.

Rescue Master

Ratchet pulley system giving 3:1 mechanical advantage if the top is anchored or 4:1 if the bottom is anchored.

Rescue Strop

Quick fitting, full body rescue harness.

Resuscitate

Restore life.

RZ25

Dräger BA testing unit.

Sabre

British manufacturer.

Safety Margin

Allows for a difference between theoretical and actual air consumption in open circuit SCBA.

Sail

Portable brattice used for pushing back smoke.

Scapula

Shoulder blade.

SCBA

Self Contained Breathing Apparatus.

Secondary Survey

Top to toe examination.

SEFA

Sabre brand compressed oxygen, positive pressure, closed circuit SCBA.

SEX

Sodium Ethyl Xanthate. Flotation agent used in mineral processing.

Sex

Mines Rescuers' second favourite pastime.

Shock

Circulatory collapse.

Signs

Visible clues to a casualty's condition.

Single Stage SCBA

Has no pressure reducer before the demand valve.

Smoke

Solid and liquid particles suspended in the air.

Sphygmomanometer

Blood pressure cuff.

Spinal Column

Bones (vertebrae) of the spine.

Spinal Cord

The cord of nerves protected by the spinal column.

SRT Descender

Fail safe, lever action, abseiling device.

Start-up Procedure

Procedure for ensuring that all aspects of a SCBA are functioning properly.

Static Kernmantle Rope

Abseiling rope with minimal elasticity.

STEL

Short Term Exposure Limit (15 mins). Measure of toxicity.

Sternum

Breastbone.

Stich Plate

Simple descending device.

Stiffneck

Neck brace that comes in a kit of different sizes. Very effective and allows access to the carotid pulse.

Stinkdamp

Hydrogen Sulphide.

St John Action Plan

DRABC

Stokes Litter

Basket type stretcher.

Stopping

Air tight wall.

Suction Catheter

Tube used for sucking foreign material.

Symptoms

Non visible clues to a casualty's condition as told to you by the casualty.

Tally

Tag used for keeping track of rescuers wearing open circuit SCBA.

Tetrahedron of Fire

Pictorial representation of the four elements of fire.

The Damps

Collective name given to gases that can contaminate mine air.

Thoracic

Relating to the chest.

Thorax

Chest.

Tibia

Shin bone.

TLV/C

Threshold Limit Value/ Ceiling. Measure of toxicity.

TWA

Time Weighted Average (5 x 8hr days). Measure of toxicity.

Toxic

Poisonous.

Transceiver

Two way radio.

Two Stage SCBA

Has a pressure reducer before the demand valve.

Ulna

Outer bone of the forearm.

Universal Gas Detector

Pump used to draw a measured amount of air through gas detection tubes.

UN No.

United Nations Number. Used to identify a chemical.

Vein

Blood vessel that carries blood to the heart.

Velocity

Speed in a given direction.

Ventricular Fibrillation

Ineffective twitching of the part of the heart muscle that pumps blood to the body.

Vetter Bag

Low pressure, inflatable lifting device.

Water Capacity

Volume of water that a cylinder would hold, ie volume at atmospheric pressure.

Whirling Hygrometer

Device used for measuring temperature and relative humidity.

Whistle Time

Theoretical time that the low pressure warning whistle would activate in an open circuit SCBA with a ten minute safety margin.

Whitedamp

Carbon Monoxide.

Working Duration

Full duration minus any safety margin.

Emergency Response Considerations

Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus

Drager PA93

Hazardous Chemicals

Drager BG174

Drager BG4

Gases

Fire

Fire Fighting

First Aid

Rope Rescue

Case Study - Pasminco Fire

Major Disaster Case Studies

Summary of the Principles of Rescue Work

Guidelines for the Frequency of Practice Sessions


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